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Polymers: Crash Course Chemistry #45
 
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You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing great content. Did you know that Polymers save the lives of Elephants? Well, now you do! The world of Polymers is so amazingly integrated into our daily lives that we sometimes forget how amazing they are. Here, Hank talks about how they were developed an the different types of Polymers that are common in the world today, including some that may surprise you. -- Table of Contents Commercial Polymers & Saved Elephants 0:00 Ethene AKA Ethylene 2:29 Addition Reactions 3:08 Ethene Based Polymers 4:44 Addition Polymerization & Condensation Reactions 6:32 Proteins & Other Natural Polymers 8:33 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1106467 CrashCourse
Naruto Online : Bond Mystery Guide + Gameplay
 
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In this video i will be explaining the bond mystery feature. I will show you guys how the activate the bonds and show gameplay of it. JOIN MY DISCORD : https://discord.gg/2EsfdGJ Hope you enjoy~ Thanks for watching~
Views: 20118 WhiteFang
Transglutaminase main reaction: Crosslinking or Transamidation
 
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http://webs.ono.com/fotgcren/index.htm CROSSLINKING OR TRANSAMIDATION The major function of transglutaminases (TGs) is the covalent cross-linking of one protein chain via a glutamine residue to a lysine residue of another protein chain in a reaction termed transamidation (Elli 2009). Transglutaminases catalyzes the formation of ε -(γ-glutamyl)lysine bonds between a selected glutamine residue of one protein and a lysine residue of another protein, leading to protein crosslinking (Remon Van Geel 1982). BETWEEN GLUTAMINE AND LYSINE Transglutaminases catalyzes post-translational cross-link reactions between two substrates that can be two proteins or two residues of the same protein, involving lysine and glutamine (Serafini-Fracassini and Del Duca 2008). The transglutaminases are a family of structurally and functionally related enzymes which catalyze Ca2+-dependent post-translational modification of proteins by introducing a protein-protein crosslink between a specific glutamine and a lysine residue (Klöck et al. 2012) Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in a variety of proteins (Sugimura 2006). RESULTING BOND; A COVALENT BOND TERMED "ISOPEPTIDE BOND": The cross-link formed is called an ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bond (Lantto 2007). The TG catalyzes the formation of ε-( γ-glutamyl) lysine bonds (isopeptide bond) between peptide-bound glutamine residues and the primary amine group of various amines (Haroon 1999). The ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bond is highly resistant to proteolysis and denaturants and it gives stable, rigid and insoluble protein complexes (Sulic 2011). The resulting bonds are covalent, stable, and resistant to proteolysis, thereby increasing the resistance of tissues to chemical, enzymatic, and physical degradation (Greenberg 1991). These isopeptide bonds are stable and more resistant to proteolytic degradation than noncovalent linkages. The covalent cross-linking reaction increases the resistance of proteins to chemical, enzymatic, and physical disruption (Haroon 1999). Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use
Views: 1349 FOTGCREN
Our bonds are our strength
 
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Fulfilment in life requires an environment that respects personal freedom, equal opportunities and fundamental rights. A union created on the basis of freedom, security and justice, to achieve peace and equality - intrinsically linked values. Yet it is these same values that have transformed the very nature and scale of serious and organised crime. Cybercrime, terrorism, human and drug trafficking, hate crime, fraud, and other constantly-evolving crimes are no longer subject to boundaries – real or virtual. In a common area, we need common answers found in solidarity. This requires networks that cooperate, exchange information, and work alongside each other. To this end, 9 European agencies have joined forces under the guidance of the European Institutions. They establish knowledge centres, judicial and law enforcement training and cooperation, training programmes and IT systems to back the countries of our common area, help manage borders, immigration and migration flows, support the development of a common European Asylum System, promote equality between women and men, tackle drug-related problems and cross-border crime. Every day, these agencies bring European policies to life for people living in the EU, ensuring the values of freedom, security, justice and equality can exist both collectively and separately, reinforcing one another. Thanks to the Agencies’ close collaboration, people in the EU will continue to find fulfilment in their fundamental rights - together, feeling more secure in themselves and the Union in which they live.
Collagen and keratin protein
 
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This lecture explains about the collagen and keratin protein structure and function of proteins like collagen and keratin. Molecules required for structural functions are in most cases long and skinny, insoluble and organized to form fibres with the aid of associating facet by using part. So much of the epidermis comprises two populations of cells which might be separated by using a thin layer fabricated from a network of fibres - basement membrane. Above the membrane (surface) cells (epidermal) are embedded in protein fibres of keratin. That is the epidermis. Below the basement membrane is the dermis the deeper layer of the dermis where the cells are embedded in another gruop of protein fibres collagen. Both of those proteins are very insoluble, both have very excessive tensile force, but their structures are very special on the grounds that capabilities fluctuate. Keratin discovered in dermis, nails, hair, horn and hoof. Collagen observed in dermis, cartilage, bone, tendons. Strength is offered with the aid of establishing lengthy rods which twist collectively to kind ropes, and are laid down in criss-pass matrix type. Correspondingly, AA sequences in fibrous proteins designed to be long and repetitive and not using a beta-turns or folding characteristics of globular proteins. Fibrous proteins should not have prosthetic companies or active web sites, which want defense. Very abundant fibrous protein constitutes ¼ of all protein in physique. Observed in dermis, bone, tendon, cartilage, blood vessels and almost all organs the place it serves to kind a matrix (insoluble) for retaining and supporting cells. As in keratin the fundamental constitution is modified to meet the specialised wishes of precise tissues. The basic unit of structure is a triple helix structure referred to as tropocollagen and every polypeptide chain usually has 1000 AA residues. Analysis of the polypeptide chains exhibits that gly and professional or hydroxypro are very distinguished, virtually one 0.33 of the AA are gly and ¼ is professional or hydroxypro. The polypeptide chain is virtually a repeating unit of a tripeptide unit gly-X-professional where X is another AA and professional will also be Hpro. Because of the excessive degree of professional or Hpro the polypeptide chains can't undertake both alpha-helix or beta-sheet conformations. Instead, polypeptides expect a left surpassed helix conformation which is stretched and more open than the coiled alpha-helix. This extra open increased constitution allows the three helices to interlock higher to form a rigid three-stranded cable or triple helix. As a consequence the important constitution plays a central function in producing this fundamental cable structure which offers collagen its major homes. The professional residues preclude alpha-helix formation and aid generate the improved LH triple helix conformation. The gly every three residues is central considering of its very small R workforce takes up little or no house permits the three helices fit very shut collectively. The unique AA sequence prevents H-bonding inside the chains so one of the crucial pro are hydroxylated to Hpro, which then kind vast inter-chain H-bonding to lock the chains within the conformation. This stabilises the distinguished constitution. With out the H-bonds the constitution is unstable and un-winds. Hydroxylations on professional are carried out with the aid of an enzyme known as prolyl hydroxylase, which is an enzyme that requires vitamin C as a cofactor within the response. Absence of vitamin C within the food regimen reduces hydroxylation of pro, and collagen fibres begin to break down and new collagen now not formed accurately. Lack of diet C factors scurvy since collagen fibres will not be fashioned safely, and this causes dermis lesions, weakened gums so enamel fall out etc. Equally fundamental is hydroxy-lys catalysed by means of lysine hydroxylase. Attached to the lys residues are three sugars gal-gal-glu, and these enable H-bonding to occur between triple helices, which is principal for balance of the bigger complex that binds fibres collectively to type a matrix mattress to binds cells to the matrix and form a tissue. There is a genetic defect referred to as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, which produces a faulty lysine hydroxylase leading to bad go-linking between fibres, so collagen is weakly held collectively and unfastened. Makes the dermis very hyperextensible, very skinny translucent in areas, fingers are spidery, joints are hyperflexible. Brought on via a scarcity of hydroxy-lys in collagen so no sugars, and no cross-linking between fibres and with cells. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html
Views: 27789 Shomu's Biology
Golden rain - ionic bonding demo
 
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Before I even try to teach ionic equations I check to see if my students have picked up any misconceptions about how ions behave in aqueous solution. The precipitation of lead iodide from a solution of potassium iodide and lead nitrate is so dramatic and engaging that I use it both with my 11–14 and 16–18 year old students. The younger students see this reaction when I’m introducing ionic bonding. I show the reaction again to my older students and ask them to sketch particle diagrams to explain what they are seeing. Thankfully, the ‘seen it before’ mentality is easily avoided with this reaction – the ‘golden rain’ demonstration is a stunning suspension of glistening yellow crystals. Read the article that accompanies this video in the January 2015 issue of Education in Chemistry at http://rsc.li/EiC115ec This is part of the Education in Chemistry Exhibition Chemistry series: chemistry demonstrations to capture your students' imaginations: http://rsc.li/EiCExChem
Transglutaminase main reaction: Crosslinking by William Bains
 
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http://webs.ono.com/fotgcren/index.htm CROSSLINKING OR TRANSAMIDATION The major function of transglutaminases (TGs) is the covalent cross-linking of one protein chain via a glutamine residue to a lysine residue of another protein chain in a reaction termed transamidation (Elli 2009). Transglutaminases catalyzes the formation of ε -(γ-glutamyl)lysine bonds between a selected glutamine residue of one protein and a lysine residue of another protein, leading to protein crosslinking (Remon Van Geel 1982). BETWEEN GLUTAMINE AND LYSINE Transglutaminases catalyzes post-translational cross-link reactions between two substrates that can be two proteins or two residues of the same protein, involving lysine and glutamine (Serafini-Fracassini and Del Duca 2008). The transglutaminases are a family of structurally and functionally related enzymes which catalyze Ca2+-dependent post-translational modification of proteins by introducing a protein-protein crosslink between a specific glutamine and a lysine residue (Klöck et al. 2012) Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in a variety of proteins (Sugimura 2006). RESULTING BOND; A COVALENT BOND TERMED "ISOPEPTIDE BOND": The cross-link formed is called an ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bond (Lantto 2007). The TG catalyzes the formation of ε-( γ-glutamyl) lysine bonds (isopeptide bond) between peptide-bound glutamine residues and the primary amine group of various amines (Haroon 1999). The ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bond is highly resistant to proteolysis and denaturants and it gives stable, rigid and insoluble protein complexes (Sulic 2011). The resulting bonds are covalent, stable, and resistant to proteolysis, thereby increasing the resistance of tissues to chemical, enzymatic, and physical degradation (Greenberg 1991). These isopeptide bonds are stable and more resistant to proteolytic degradation than noncovalent linkages. The covalent cross-linking reaction increases the resistance of proteins to chemical, enzymatic, and physical disruption (Haroon 1999). Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use
Views: 139 FOTGCREN
Better IHC Step 1: Antigen Retrieval
 
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Frustrated by fuzzy IHC staining? Watch this series of short videos to learn how to get better staining and consistent IHC results using an optimized protocol. 👉Download the Guide to Successful Immunohistochemistry: https://cst-science.com/mqrpjz View the Better IHC Playlist:https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL9M40WPXt5VwhyNAD44IUDyWpOm9B7UM5 Step 1: Antigen Retrieval (this video) Step 2: Primary Antibody Diluent: https://youtu.be/1uSf0MbBSb8 Step 3: Detection Reagents: https://youtu.be/0YJKq3-GJQo Step 4: Chromogen: https://youtu.be/vBQZv6AIPXY 👉Subscribe: http://youtube.com/user/cellsignaldotcom?sub_confirmation=1 👉CST Protocols and Troubleshooting: http://cellsignal.com/protocols 👉Get in touch with a CST scientist: http://cellsignal.com/support Transcript: It's Friday night, and you're staring into a microscope, hoping to see positive results from your immunohistochemistry experiment. Unfortunately, all you see is some indistinct fuzziness. So the data is inconclusive. It's a failure. We've all been there. Next week you'll come back and work on fixing the protocol. But where to start? You probably know that a highly specific, high affinity primary antibody is key to a successful IHC. But did you know that the companion reagents such as buffers, which establish the pH and ionic strength of the system, are just as important? These reagents can influence the binding of the primary antibody to its epitope and dramatically affect the outcome of the assay. To help you pick the best reagents for your assay and make sure those Friday nights in the lab are worth the effort, we will spend the next several videos reviewing how companion reagents affect IHC, and, as an example, we will describe our experience, optimizing the protocol for one of our antibodies. Let's get started. Step One. Antigen Retrieval. Several methods exist for revealing epitopes that have been massed by cross-linking fixatives like formalin. These include Proteolytic-Induced Antigen Retrieval, which relies on an enzyme like Proteinase K, or Heat-Induced Epitope Retrieval, which uses heat to break apart cross-linked bonds and unwind proteins. Either method can unmask epitopes, rendering them accessible to the primary antibody and amenable to staining by IHC. At Cell Signaling Technology, we most often use Heat-Induced Epitope Retrieval when testing our antibodies. So this is the method we will discuss in detail. Heat-Induced Epitope Retrieval, also known as antigen unmasking, involves heating and cooling the tissue sections while they are immersed in a solution with a defined buffering capacity. The pH of the buffer helps keep the proteins unwound after the temperature is returned to normal. So the pH range of the system should be optimized to the antibody-epitope interaction of interest. The slightly acidic buffer citrate is effective at unmasking a wide range of epitopes, but some may require a more basic buffer, like EDTA. We use citrate buffer for Heat-Induced Epitope Retrieval while optimizing the PLK Rabbit mAb protocol because it works for the widest range of epitopes. We kept this method constant as we did a stepwise change of the other companion reagents. Coming up next, Step Two. 👉About CST: Cell Signaling Technology (CST) is a private, family-owned company, founded by scientists and dedicated to providing high-quality research tools to the biomedical research community. Our employees operate worldwide from our U.S. headquarters in Massachusetts, and our offices in the Netherlands, China, and Japan. http://cellsignal.com/about
AP Chemistry Holiday Cross Linked Polymers '13 - Glow in the dark Slime!
 
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4 grams of poly vinyl alcohol is dissolved in 100 ml of water that is kept at about 70 degrees Celsius. In a separate cup 16 ml of sodium tetra borate solution (4%) is added with food coloring, glitter, or zinc sulfide (florescent material for glow in the dark slime). Once the poly vinyl alcohol is dissolved it is poured into the plastic cup and we stir like Banshee's!! We feel the H bonds forming as our polymer forms. Place in baggie and Happy Holidays!!
Views: 2036 MrGrodskiChemistry
The Structure and Properties of Polymers
 
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The Structure and Properties of Polymers Addition polymerisation structure of polymers Monomers contain C=C bonds Double bond opens to (link) bond to next monomer molecule Chain forms when same basic unit is repeated over and over. properties of polymers Modern polymers also developed based on alkynes R-C C - R’ Copolymerisation when more than one monomer is used. Covalent Properties polymer chain length properties An irregular chain structure will result eg propene/ethene/propene/propene/ethene Why might polymers designers want to design a polymer in this way? Polymer (Hint) Intermolecular bonds! Elastomers, plastics & fibres Find a definition and suggest your own example of each of these. What decides the properties of a polymer? Stronger attractive forces between chains = stronger, less flexible polymer. Chains able to slide past each other = flexible polymer . In poly(ethene) attractive forces are weak instantaneous dipole - induced dipole, will it be flexible or not? Properties Of Polymers Nylon has strong hydrogen bonds, why does this make it a strong fibre? Getting ideas straight Look at page 110 -111 of Chemical Ideas. Take turns in explaining to a partner how the following molecular structures affect the overall properties of polymers :- chain length, different side groups, chain branching, stereoregularity, chain flexibility, cross linking. Thermoplastics (80%) No cross links between chains. Weak attractive forces between chains broken by warming. Change shape - can be remoulded. Weak forces reform in new shape when cold. Thermosets Extensive cross-linking formed by covalent bonds. Bonds prevent chains moving relative to each other. What will the properties of this type of plastic be like? Longer chains make stronger polymers. Critical length needed before strength increases. Hydrocarbon polymers average of 100 repeating units necessary but only 40 for nylons. Tensile strength measures the forces needed to snap a polymer. More tangles + more touching!!! Crystalline polymers Areas in polymer where chains packed in regular way. Both amorphous and crystalline areas in same polymer. Crystalline - regular chain structure - no bulky side groups. More crystalline polymer - stronger and less flexible. Cold-drawing When a polymer is stretched a ‘neck’ forms. What happens to the chains in the ‘neck’? Cold drawing is used to increase a polymers’ strength. Why then do the handles of plastic carrier bags snap if you fill them full of tins of beans?
Views: 19385 SliderBase
Honors Chemistry per 8 Holiday Cross Linked Polymers '13
 
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4 grams of poly vinyl alcohol is dissolved in 100 ml of water that is kept at about 70 degrees Celsius. In a separate cup 16 ml of sodium tetra borate solution (4%) is added with food coloring, and glitter. Once the poly vinyl alcohol is dissolved it is poured into the plastic cup and we stir like Banshee's!! We feel the H bonds forming as our polymer forms. Place in baggie and Happy Holidays!!
Views: 130 MrGrodskiChemistry
Crosslinking polymers with organic peroxides
 
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Crosslinking, also referred to as vulcanization, is a process to improve the properties of plastics and rubbers. Check out this educational video-animation and see how the process works and how the properties are improved. http://www.akzonobel.com/polymer AkzoNobel Polymer Chemistry is the world's leading supplier of organic peroxides. We produce everyday essentials for the polymer producing and converting industry. Crosslinking of polymers is a process where polymer chains are connected to each other. With this video-animation we want to explain to a wide audience in an easy to understand how this polymer chemistry works. The animation shows the basics of how organic peroxides are used in the crosslinking of polymers such as polyethylene, EPDM and EVA. Typical examples of crosslinked or vulcanized plastics and rubbers are shoe soles, underground and subsea cables, timing belts and radiator hoses in cars and PEX (crosslinked polyethylene) pipes.
Views: 36669 AkzoNobel
PCC with Brett Albury
 
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5 times stronger than competitive bond reconnectors, PCC actually rebuilds the sulphur bond for lastingly stronger hair. Proven through scientific testing, PCC combines a blend of cysteine, cross-linked cysteine, magensium and keratin for unbelievably strong hair.
Ionic Bonding Introduction
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry This video is an introduction to ionic bonding, which is one type of chemical bonding. Ionic bonds hold together metal and nonmetal atoms. In ionic bonding, electrons are transferred from a metal atom to a nonmetal atom, creating ions. These ions have opposite charge, so they stick together. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC
Views: 1072778 Tyler DeWitt
Peptidoglycan | Peptidoglycan structure | Biochemistry
 
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This video explains about Peptidoglycan and structure of peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan is made up of NAM (N-acetyl Muramic acid) and NAG (N-acetyle Glucosamine) linked with Beta 1 4 glycosidic bond. Peptidoglycan is heteropolysaccharide and Peptidoglycan is found in cell wall of bacteria so it is call structural polysaccharide. Peptidoglycan is 3D mesh like structure having pentaglycine interbridge. Pentaglycine interbridge is formed by an enzyme called D D Transpeptidase. Penicillin binds to Transpeptidase enzyme and blocks its activity hence the cellwall systhesis is inhibited and bacteria die.
Views: 8922 Sandip's Biology
Muscle Contraction - Cross Bridge Cycle, Animation.
 
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Molecular basis of the sliding filament theory (skeletal muscle contraction) - the cross bridge cycle. This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here : https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/all-animations/cell-molecular-biology-genetics-videos Voice by: Sue Stern ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia Muscle contraction is at the basis of all skeletal movements. Skeletal muscles are composed of muscles fibers which in turn are made of repetitive functional units called sarcomeres. Each sarcomere contains many parallel, overlapping thin (actin) and thick (myosin) filaments. The muscle contracts when these filaments slide past each other, resulting in a shortening of the sarcomere and thus the muscle. This is known as the sliding filament theory. Cross-bridge cycling forms the molecular basis for this sliding movement. - Muscle contraction is initiated when muscle fibers are stimulated by a nerve impulse and calcium ions are released. - To trigger muscular contraction, the troponin units on the actin myofilaments are bound by calcium ions. The binding displaces tropomyosin along the myofilaments, which in turn (and) exposes the myosin binding sites. - At this stage, the head of each myosin unit is bound to an ADP and a phosphate molecule remaining from the previous muscular contraction. - Now, the myosin heads release these phosphates and bind to the actin myofilaments via the newly exposed myosin binding sites. - In this way, the actin and myosin myofilaments are cross-linked. - The two myofilaments glide past one another, propelled by a head-first movement of the myosin units powered by the chemical energy stored in their heads. As the units move, they release the ADP molecules bound to their heads. - The gliding motion is halted when ATP molecules bind to the myosin heads, thus severing the bonds between myosin and actin. - The ATP molecules bound to myosin are now decomposed into ADP and phosphate, with the energy released by this reaction stored in the myosin heads, ready to be used in the next cycle of movement. - Having been unbound from actin, the myosin heads resume their starting positions along the actin myofilament, and can now begin a new sequence of actin binding. - Thus, the presence of further calcium ions will trigger a new contraction cycle
Views: 429563 Alila Medical Media
The phone screen that can heal itself
 
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Japanese researchers have unveiled a new type of glass that can heal itself from cracks and breaks.The groundbreaking new material could lead to virtually unbreakable phone screens.The breakthrough was discovered by accident by a Japanese graduate student who was trying to glue something.The new polymer glass is 'highly robust mechanically yet can readily be repaired by compression at fractured surfaces', the team wrote in the journal Science.Holding the fractured pieces together for just 30 seconds at 21 degrees celcius was enough to form a merged sheet capable of withstanding 300g in weight, the team found, and it returned to its original strength within a couple of hours, they found.The properties of the polyether-thioureas glass were discovered by accident by graduate school student Yu Yanagisawa, who was preparing the material as a glue.Yanagisawa told NHK that he didn't believe the results at first and repeated his experiments multiple times to confirm the finding.He said: 'I hope the repairable glass becomes a new environment-friendly material that avoids the need to be thrown away if broken.' 'High mechanical robustness and healing ability tend to be mutually exclusive,' wrote the researchers.'Expanding the range of healable materials is an important challenge for sustainable societies.'Noncrystalline, high molecular weight polymers generally form mechanically robust materials, which, however, are difficult to repair once they are fractured.'This is because their polymer chains are heavily entangled and diffuse too sluggishly to unite fractured surfaces within reasonable timescales.'Here, we report that low molecular weight polymers, when cross-linked by dense hydrogen bonds, give mechanically robust yet readily repairable materials, despite their extremely slow diffusion dynamics.' Although other self healing materials have been made, they require 'in most cases, heating to high temperatures, on the order of 120°C or more, to reorganise their cross-linked networks, is necessary for the fractured portions to repair,' the team said.The research, published in Science, by researchers led by Professor Takuzo Aida from the University of Tokyo,.
Views: 97 AZ ProVis TV
What Are Covalent Bonds | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about covalent bonds, when learning about properties of matter. When similar atoms react, like non-metals combining with other non-metals, they share electrons. This is covalent bonding. Non-metals have shells of electrons that are normally half or more than half full of electrons. Since they have a strong attraction for a few additional electrons, it is energetically unfavourable for any of them to lose electrons, so they share electrons by overlapping orbitals. This makes a bonding orbital, or covalent bond, that contains two or more electrons. Covalent bonds can be represented by a dot and cross diagram. These diagrams show only the valence electrons. Covalent bonds are directional, which means they are in a fixed position. The overlap between orbitals mean that the atoms in covalent bonds are very close, and make covalent bonds strong. There are two kinds of covalent structure - small molecules, like water, and giant compounds, like diamond. The electrons in the bonds are evenly shared, which means the bonds are not polarised; there is little attraction between molecules, and forces between molecules are weak. Compounds made from small covalent molecules have low melting and boiling points and are volatile. They also don’t conduct electricity. Carbon and silicon tend to form giant covalent compounds. These bond in the same way, but instead of forming small molecules with one or two bonds, they form four, make up huge lattices or chains of many many linked up atoms. Diamond is a common example, and is made up of Carbon. These compounds have very high melting and boiling points because you have to break covalent bonds rather than intermolecular forces to make them free enough to act like liquids or gases. The covalent bonds hold them rigidly in place in the giant lattice. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Transglutaminase crosslinking of the same protein-based foods 1 (pieces)
 
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http://webs.ono.com/fotgcren/index.htm Transglutaminase crosslinking of protein-based foods (joining pieces together) In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates (Rachel 2013). TGases have been identified in many different of taxonomic groups, including microorganisms, plants, invertebrates, and mammals (Rachel 2013). Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of isopeptide bonds between proteins (Kieliszek 2014) In commercial food processing, transglutaminase is used to bond proteins together (Wikipedia 2015) Transglutaminase is produced by Streptoverticillium mobaraense fermentation in commercial quantities or extracted from animal blood (Wikipedia 2015) The extremely high costs of manufacturing transglutaminase from animal origin have prompted scientists to search for new sources of this enzyme (Kieliszek 2014) Interdisciplinary efforts have been aimed at producing enzymes synthesised by microorganisms which may have a wider scope of use (Kieliszek 2014) In 1989, microbial transglutaminase was isolated from Streptoverticillium sp. Its characterisation indicated that this isoform could be extremely useful as a biotechnological tool in the food industry (Kieliszek 2014) Microbial transglutaminase is an important enzyme in food processing for improving protein properties by catalyzing the cross-linking of proteins (Zhang 2010). Transglutaminase is also widely used in the meat industry, mainly in the manufacture of restructured meat (Kuraishi et al. 1997). Microbial transglutaminase is commonly employed as a tool in the food industry to catalyze the cross-linking of meat, soy, and wheat proteins to improve and modify their texture and tensile properties (Rcahel 2013). It is notable that gluten pretreated with microbial transglutaminase and an amine donor prior to TG2 treatment induces less IFN-γ production by celiac patient biopsy-derived intestinal T cells relative to gluten receiving no pretreatment. This suggests that the specificities of these enzymes (Human Tissue transglutaminase and microbial transglutaminase) do indeed overlap to some extent (Bethune 2008). Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.
Views: 1047 FOTGCREN
CROSS-LINKING/CXL/C3R (SURGICAL PROCEDURE) [HD]
 
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Let’s now discuss the procedure of Corneal Collagen Crosslinking in more detail...To perform C3R anaesthetic eye drops, also called as Topical Anaesthesia is used to make the whole surgical procedure almost painless. So you will be awake during the whole procedure!!!You can see what the surgeon is doing with your eyes. Generally single eye is treated at a time. Now riboflavin (Vitamin B2) eye drops are applied and eyes are exposed to UltraViolet-A (UV-A, 365 nm) light for 30 minutes duration. So why Riboflavin and UV-A are used together? Because the interaction of Riboflavin with UltraViolet-A is responsible for the formation of extra bonds between the molecules of collagen. This leads to stiffening of the cornea.After finishing the treatment, the eye doctor applies antibiotic eye drops to prevent any kind of infection after the surgery. Bandage Contact lenses could also be used to prevent any injury to the eyes and for safety purpose. These contact lenses need to be worn until the next follow-up visit to your eye doctor.
Views: 988 Keratoconushub
Hydrogel Drug Release Systems
 
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How can all the ingredients in Morgellons could come in the same package? Hydrogels, Micelles, Dendrimers. It comes with its own super glue. Drug delivery systems involve polymer that biodegrades and some form permanent networks which use the hydrogen and oxygen from the victims own body to reassemble continually by synthetic control. VOCABULARY: Amorphous: Materials with disordered structure Condensation growth: Two molecules combine to form one single molecule, with the loss of one small molecule. Controlled degradation: The polymer comes apart gradually (biodegradable). Copolymer: Two polymers in a matrix (tripolymer-3 polymers). Cross-linked polymer: Bonds that link one polymer chain to another to promote a difference in the composite matrix. Glycolic acid: Used for face peels. Hydrophilic: Loves water Hydrophobic: Hates water Lactic acid: Produced during rigorous exercise. Ligand: Substance able to bind to and form a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Lower toxicity: Less damage is done to body. Molecular Synthesis: Creating synthetic molecules Monomer: See Video at 1:00 minute Polymer: Many monomers attached (linear at 1:00 min) Specific absorption: Only specific molecules cross cell membrane. Stepwise growth: Monomers react to form first dimers, trimers, oligomers and eventually long chain polymers. Time Release: Drug delivered over a period of time instead of all at once in a burst.
Views: 22123 Skizit Gesture
Virginia Eye Institute | Cross Linking for Progressive Keratoconus
 
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In April 2016, Avedro received U.S. FDA approval for its corneal cross-linking technology, including the KXL® System, Photrexa® Viscous (riboflavin 5’-phosphate in 20% dextran ophthalmic solution) 0.146%, and Photrexa (riboflavin 5’-phosphate ophthalmic solution) 0.146%. In the most basic sense, corneal cross-linking is a treatment where riboflavin drops are applied to and absorbed by the cornea. An ultraviolet light treatment is then applied to the eye, causing a reaction within the corneal stroma to create bonds called cross-links. Those bonds stiffen and strengthen the cornea so it stops thinning, weakening and distorting. For more information on the services and procedures offered at Virginia Eye Institute please visit: https://goo.gl/6nX4RZ
How to prep your car for a coating
 
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Quickly eliminates any oils and waxes on any surface! Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray was designed to be used in conjunction with any of the many Pinnacle Black Label coatings to ensure that you get the most out of your coating. Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray is extremely effective at breaking down any polishing oils, waxes, or other residue that finds its way onto your car over time. You can use Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray to cleanse the surface of your paint, glass, or wheels to make sure they are ready to be coated. The simple spray and wipe formula of Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Prep Spray ensures that you will be able to prep the surface and move onto applying your incredible Pinnacle Black Label coating as quickly as possible! Ceramic coatings, especially the Pinnacle Black Label coatings, are a quite impressive advancement in the world of detailing. These products are made with incredibly advance chemical technology that allows them to far surpass any wax or sealant in both level of protection AND life-span! However, while these coatings are an extremely effective defense against the slew of contaminants that assault your vehicle, they are a particularly picky beast. The nano-chemical technology used in these coatings will only properly bond to itself and the surface to which they are applied. The existence of any oils, lubricants, or waxes on the surface will prevent the costing from cross-linking and adhering to the surface properly. Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray makes sure that your surface is perfectly prepped and entirely cleared of these pesky oils, waxes, and lubricants that pose such a threat to your coating. Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray is designed with a chemical cleaner that is capable of penetrating the otherwise resilient bonds that oils and wax forms with itself. Once these bonds are penetrated, Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray will work quickly to break them down and release the hold they have on the surface of your vehicle! Because Pinnacle Black Label makes a coating almost every surface of your vehicle, it was also crucial that you be able to properly prep those surfaces as well! Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray will work equally as effectively to prep and clean the surface of your glass, paint, and wheels! This will allow you to use the entire line of Pinnacle Black Label coatings to keep your car protected for years to come! Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray was also designed to ensure that you would not have to wait forever to get the long-lasting protection of your coating. To do so, Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray was formulated to be as easy and as quick to use as possible! Pinnacle Black Label Diamond Surface Prep Spray requires only a simple spray and wipe application process, allowing you to spend less time cleaning your car and more time enjoying the many benefits of your coating! Directions for Use: Do not use in direct sunlight. Apply only to cool surfaces. Working panel by panel, spray Diamond Surface Prep Spray directly to the surface and wipe away using a clean and soft microfiber towel. Continue around vehicle until each surface is prepped. https://www.autogeek.net/pbl-diamond-prep-spray.html
Views: 723 Autogeek
Claisen Condensation and Dieckmann Condensation
 
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We've learned some enolate chemistry using ketones and aldehydes as substrates, so let's learn the Claisen Condensation, which uses an ester substrate, as well as the intramolecular version, called the Dieckmann Condensation. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains This month's Mega Professor Pals: Saleh Saif Justin Bonds To see your name here, visit my Patreon page, linked above! General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
#glazemycar
 
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The engineering behind AURA AUTOZSPA allows the condensed nano particles to form extremely effective cross linking bonds with surfaces
Views: 32 AURA AUTOZ SPA
Transglutaminase crosslinking of different protein-based foods 1
 
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http://webs.ono.com/fotgcren/index.htm Transglutaminase crosslinking of different protein-based foods TGases have been identified in many different of taxonomic groups, including microorganisms, plants, invertebrates, and mammals (Rachel 2013). In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates (Rachel 2013). Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of isopeptide bonds between proteins (Kieliszek 2014) In commercial food processing, transglutaminase is used to bond proteins together (Wikipedia 2015) Transglutaminase is produced by Streptoverticillium mobaraense fermentation in commercial quantities or extracted from animal blood (Wikipedia 2015) The extremely high costs of manufacturing transglutaminase from animal origin have prompted scientists to search for new sources of this enzyme (Kieliszek 2014) Interdisciplinary efforts have been aimed at producing enzymes synthesised by microorganisms which may have a wider scope of use (Kieliszek 2014) In 1989, microbial transglutaminase was isolated from Streptoverticillium sp. Its characterisation indicated that this isoform could be extremely useful as a biotechnological tool in the food industry (Kieliszek 2014) Microbial transglutaminase is an important enzyme in food processing for improving protein properties by catalyzing the cross-linking of proteins (Zhang 2010). Transglutaminase is also widely used in the meat industry, mainly in the manufacture of restructured meat (Kuraishi et al. 1997). Microbial transglutaminase is commonly employed as a tool in the food industry to catalyze the cross-linking of meat, soy, and wheat proteins to improve and modify their texture and tensile properties (Rcahel 2013). It is notable that gluten pretreated with microbial transglutaminase and an amine donor prior to TG2 treatment induces less IFN-γ production by celiac patient biopsy-derived intestinal T cells relative to gluten receiving no pretreatment. This suggests that the specificities of these enzymes (Human Tissue transglutaminase and microbial transglutaminase) do indeed overlap to some extent (Bethune 2008). Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.
Views: 1607 FOTGCREN
The Ultimate Borax Free Slime Recipe
 
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Traditional slime is made with boron. Most alternative slime recipes remain sticky and gooey because they don't create the cross-linked bonds that occur when boron molecules mix with PVA molecules in glue. But, not this slime recipe! We've found the ultimate borax-free slime recipe that acts just like traditional slime without any boron at all. Get the deets: https://www.schoolingamonkey.com/magnesium-flake-slime-without-borax-or-liquid-starch/
Classification of Polymers Part -1
 
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1) Classification on the basis of a origin a) Natural Polymers b) Synthetic Polymers a) Natural Polymers - The Polymers obtained from nature ( plants and animals) are called Natural Polymers. These occur in plants and animals and are very essential for life. Examples are- Starch, Cellulose, Proteins, Nucleic Acid, Natural Rubber.etc. Starch is a polymer of alpha glucose monomer. Cellulose is a polymer of beta glucose monomer. Protein is a polymer of amino acids monomer . Nucleic acid is a polymer of nucleotide monomer . Natural rabber is a polymer of isoprene monomer. b) Synthetic Polymers- The Polymer which are prepared in the laboratories are called synthetic Polymers, these are also called man-made Polymers. Examples are- Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, polystyrene, nylon, Bakelite, Dacron, urea formaldehyde, synthetic rubber etc. 2) Classification Of Polymers On the basis of shape/structure. This classification is based upon how the monomeric units are linked together. They are of three types:- a) Linear chain Polymers b) Branched chain Polymers c) Cross-linked Polymers a) Linear chain Polymers- In which the monomeric units are arranged/joined/linked in the form of long straight chain. -A-A-A-A-A-A-A- Due to close packed structure ,they have high tensile strength , high melting point, high density. Examples are:- High density polyethylene (HDPE), PS etc. b) Branched chain Polymers- The Polymers which are mainly linear in nature,but also posses some branches along the main chain. Due to irregular or poor packed structure Branched chain Polymers have low tensile strength,low melting point,low density. Examples are:- Low density polyethylene (LDPE), glycogen etc. c) Cross- linked Polymers:- these Polymers are three dimensional network Polymers which contain crosslinks in the form of strong covalent bonds between the chain. Due to formation of strong crosslinks, these giant molecules are hard, rigid and brittle. Examples are:- Bakelite, Melanine formaldehyde etc. Follow me on Instagram:-https://www.instagram.com/ruchu305/ Facebook:-https://www.facebook.com/ruchu.singh.9
Views: 481 Ruchi Upadhyay
Tyler Currie Dunk Session w/ Elijah Bonds! Under Both Legs Over Person!
 
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Tyler Currie (@t.currie) and Elijah Bonds (@elijahbonds) linking up for a dunk session! More Tyler Currie: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6G5Zel8f2U https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00KzAldPkxo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MS26pFDQ0Mc
Views: 65192 Dunkademics Official
Ionic Compounds: Cross Over Rule
 
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How to use the cross over rule to write the chemical formulas for ionic compounds. You can see a listing of all my videos at my website, http://www.stepbystepscience.com
Views: 49951 Step-by-Step Science
Types of Tissue Part 1: Epithelial Tissue
 
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When learning about the structure of the human body, it's best to begin by learning about the types of tissues that are found within, since all of the organs are made of different combinations of these types of tissues. First up is epithelial tissue, since this makes up the outermost part of the skin. Let's learn all about various epithelia! Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains This month's Mega Professor Pals: Saleh Saif Justin Bonds Sebastian Jo To see your name here, visit my Patreon page, linked above! General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
UNLIKELY Friendships in the Animal Kingdom
 
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Mankind and animals have been closely linked since the dawn of time, although at that stage it was more of a survival relationship than anything else. Today we look at some very unlikely friendships between humans and animals, and some very unlikely friendships between animals that truthfully, would have been pet food in any normal situation. Subscribe to Talltanic http://goo.gl/wgfvrr 9 - Keeping it in the family… This is Christian the Lion, who was born in captivity in 1969. He was literally sold right out of the Harrod’s store and bought by John Rendall and Anthony "Ace" Bourke. The men brought the lion back to their London abode, but as the lion grew bigger, so they needed bigger premises. The bigger the lion got the more they realized that they couldn’t care for him in London anymore, so they got hold of George Adamson who helped them reintroduce Christian into the wild in Africa. When they went to visit the lion after a year, they were warned that the chances of the lion remembering them would be slim, but to their amazement the lion recognized them instantly. 8 - Puppy Love… This is Mabel the Chicken and her puppies… well technically they’re not really hers, but they may as well be! Mabel had a foot injury which saw her moving into her owner’s home. When the family dog had puppies, Mabel took it upon herself to keep them warm when the puppies mom preferred being out in the yard. You could call her a real mother hen. 7 - Leader of the pack… Here’s a bit of a Mowgli story. Shaun Ellis is the founder of Wolf Pack Management at Combe Martin Wildlife Park in Devon, England. In 2005 he spent nearly two years living in captivity with three abandoned wolf pups who were privately owned. Through knowledge of wolf behavior, he became the alpha male and had their allegiance. He has spent most of his life interacting with wolves and has learned to communicate with scent and sound, also in wolves’ natural habitats on other continents. His wish is to see wolves reintroduced to England, where they last seen in the wild in the 17th century. 6 - Unlikely bedfellows Snake eats rodent. Finished. Right? Not in this case. Starting in 2005 in Tokyo’s Mutsuguro Animal Kingdom, Gohan-chan the hamster and Ao-chan the snake were bosom buddies. Ao-chan lost his appetite one day (or actually one month as he’s a snake), and the supplier was fresh out of frozen mice. It was thought that live prey might stimulate his appetite. However, the snake took no interest in the hamster, and they become one of the main attractions at the institution, living together. I wonder how Gohan-chan felt seeing his friend eating other rodents though? By the way Gohan means rice or meal in Japanese speak. 5 - Bearly believable… Meet Mark Duma, a bear trainer based in BC, Canada. He has been in the animal training business for close to 45 years and has an 800lb polar bear as a pet, you know, as one does. He adopted Agee from an overcrowded zoo when she was 8 weeks old. They play, swim and even nap together. Like a cat-nap, except it’s a bear-nap. Mark is quick to point out that Agee is friendly and gentle towards him and his wife, but not to those she doesn’t know. We’ll stay clear. 4 - The mane thing is we’re friends Bonedigger the lion was discovered to be suffering from a metabolic bone disease that left the poor chap partially disabled. Enter Milo, the 11lb Dachshund who thought a massive cat would make a good friend – that’s one brave doggie. Two other Dachshunds have joined in on the act, Bullet and Angel. Three Dachshunds and a lion – who would thought? 3 - Ohana means family Now before we go on, bear in mind hippos kill more people in Africa than crocs, lions and other dangerous game put together. Jessica the hippo lives with Tony Joubert in South Africa. It’s not that unusual for hippos to go walkies in the Kwazulu Natal Province in SA, especially after heavy flooding. She was rescued and adopted by the Jouberts. They live on an open property so Jessica is free to roam and visit other hippos, but always returns home. 2 - King Louie and his pal In a rare and endangered species reserve in the US, a rare friendship has blossomed. Roscoe, the Blue Tick Hound, followed Suryia and his handlers home one day. Suryia the Orangutan has never been happier since meeting Roscoe, and the feeling appears to be mutual. They swim together, walk together, groom each other, but I guess they don’t climb trees together. 1 - Everybody’s Best Friend… If this is 100% real, then I would pay a lot of money to encounter this myself. This friendly shark has been used to promote shark diving in the Farallon Islands, and seems to have a fondness for human interaction. Looks like he’s a regular Bruce, just ask Nemo!
Views: 3049291 Talltanic
Transglutaminase in blood coagulation: Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa): Crosslinking of fibrin
 
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http://webs.ono.com/fotgcren/index.htm Compilation of videos showing the role of the transglutaminase present in blood which is called FACTOR XIIIa or FXIIIa. The coagulation cascade has evolved as an essential defense mechanism for maintaining hemostasis during tissue or blood vessel injury (Nikolajsen 2014) Activation of the cascade ultimately results in the formation of an insoluble blood clot (Nikolajsen 2014). The clot consists mainly of fibrin fibers, platelets and red blood cells (Nikolajsen 2014). The fibers are formed when activated thrombin cleaves fibrinogen into fibrin monomers, which then assemble into fibrin fibers (Nikolajsen 2014). To obtain fibers that are capable of resisting mechanical shear and proteolytic degradation, concurrent cleavage of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) by thrombin is needed (Nikolajsen 2014). Once cleaved and activated, FXIIIa is able to stabilize the fibrin fibers and alter the characteristics of the clot (Nikolajsen 2014). Although activation of the coagulation cascade and consequently FXIIIa is essential during blood vessel damage, it may contribute negatively in pathological situations such as sepsis and cardiovascular disease (Nikolajsen 2014). FXIIIa belongs to the family of human transglutaminases (TG) (E.C 2.3.2.13) (Nikolajsen 2014). This group of enzymes is defined by their common ability to catalyze thiol- and Ca2+- dependent transamidation reactions (Nikolajsen 2014). The TG-catalyzed reaction between specific Gln and Lys residues within substrate proteins results in the formation of covalent cross-links, defined as ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds (Nikolajsen 2014). The major physiological function of FXIIIa is to stabilize the fibrin clot during coagulation (Nikolajsen 2014). FXIIIa cross-links α- and γ-chains of fibrin monomers within fibrin fibers once these have been formed (Nikolajsen 2014). The inter-molecular cross-linking of the fibrin monomers converts loose fibrin fibers into a stable fiber network that is able to withstand mechanical stress and resist clot rupture (Nikolajsen 2014). FXIIIa deficiency, which causes severe bleeding diathesis, demonstrates the essential role of FXIIIa in coagulation (Nikolajsen 2014). Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use
Views: 4613 FOTGCREN
Peptidoglycan structure and biosynthesis
 
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This lecture explains the peptidoglycan structure and synthesis. Peptidoglycan layer is also the structure of bacterial cell wall. http://shomusbiology.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching This video describes the constitution of peptidoglycan layer and the value of their presence onto the surface of microorganisms. Peptidoglycan, often referred to as murein, is a polymer such as sugars and amino acids that varieties a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria (but not Archaea), forming the cellphone wall. The sugar factor consists of alternating residues of β-(1,4) linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid. Connected to the N-acetylmuramic acid is a peptide chain of three to five amino acids. The peptide chain can be move-linked to the peptide chain of one other strand forming the 3D mesh-like layer.[1] Some Archaea have a similar layer of pseudopeptidoglycan or pseudomurein, the place the sugar residues are β-(1,three) linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid. For this reason the mobile wall of Archaea is insensitive to lysozyme.[2] Peptidoglycan serves a structural function within the bacterial phone wall, giving structural strength, as well as counteracting the osmotic stress of the cytoplasm. A original misconception is that peptidoglycan offers the cellphone its shape; nevertheless, whereas peptidoglycan helps keep the structural force of the cellphone, it is truly the MreB protein that allows mobilephone form[citation needed].[3][4] Peptidoglycan can be involved in binary fission for the period of bacterial telephone replica. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Biochemistry, 4th Edition Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet November 2010, ©2011
Views: 60728 Shomu's Biology
GLADION JUST RETURNED FROM ULTRA SPACE! (Pokemon USUM Randomizer Soul Link • #13 • w/ FeintAttacks)
 
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🔔 Join the 8bitbros • http://8bitb.ro/gbsub 🐦 Twitter • http://www.twitter.com/GameboyLuke 👾 Twitch • http://www.twitch.tv/GameboyLuke 🎮 Powered by Elgato • http://e.lga.to/GameboyLuke 🌙 CHECK OUT CHRISTIAN'S CHANNEL! 🌙 https://www.youtube.com/FeintAttacks ✨ Soul Link Nuzlocke Challenge Rules! ✨ • 1 • Any Pokémon that faints is considered dead, and must be released or stored in a specified PC box for fallen Pokémon. • 2 • You can only catch the first Pokémon encountered in each area, and none else. If the first Pokémon encountered faints or flees, there are no second chances. • 3 • You must also nickname all of your Pokémon, for the sake of forming stronger emotional bonds. • 4 • In a new area, the first encounters for both players will be, linked together until death. • 5 • If one Pokémon in a linked pair is placed in the PC, it's Soul Link partner must be placed in the PC as well. • 6 • If one Pokémon in a linked pair dies, it's Soul Link partner is considered dead as well. • 7 • If one player fails to capture their first encounter in an area, the second player must forfeit their encounter in their corresponding area. • 8 • Across both players parties, primary typings may not be repeated. • 9 • Soul Link pairs will alternate between: one male and one female Pokémon and two Pokémon of the same gender. Players will re-encounter their first encounters in a new area, until an acceptable encounter can be caught. 🎤 Use code "8bitbro" • https://www.bluedesigns.com/ 🎧 Discord Server • http://discord.gg/GameboyLuke • More From Me • ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬ Pokemon Ultra Sun & Ultra Moon Soul Link ★ https://8bitb.ro/USUMSL Pokemon Diamond Extreme Randomizer Nuzlocke ★ https://8bitb.ro/DEXR Pokemon X & Y Randomizer Nuzlocke Co-Op ★ https://8bitb.ro/XYCOOP Pokemon ORAS Randomizer Nuzlocke Versus ★ https://8bitb.ro/ORASRNVS Pokemon Ranked Battle Spot • 2BA Master ★ http://8bitb.ro/2BAMS4 Pokemon Ultra Sun & Ultra Moon Nuzlocke ★ http://8bitb.ro/USUMNuz Pokemon Sun & Moon Randomizer Nuzlocke ★ http://8bitb.ro/SunMoonR Pokemon Emerald Extreme Randomizer ★ http://8bitb.ro/EmeraldX Pokemon USUM Roulettes & FFAs ★ http://8bitb.ro/SuMoRoulettes ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬ • Follow Me • Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/GameboyLuke Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/GameboyLuke Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/GameboyLuke • Credits • ♫ Intro Music ♫ Hyper Potions - Big Snowman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3YpkzGjO_M ♫ Outro Music ♫ Porta Vista - Hyper Potions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxOewDbARxk Outro and Intro Designed By Myself
Views: 12882 GameboyLuke
Branching (chemistry) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branching_(polymer_chemistry) 00:02:09 1 Special types of branched polymer 00:03:32 2 Branching in radical polymerization 00:05:49 3 Branching index Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.96470202252444 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In polymer chemistry, branching occurs by the replacement of a substituent, e.g., a hydrogen atom, on a monomer subunit, by another covalently bonded chain of that polymer; or, in the case of a graft copolymer, by a chain of another type. Branched polymers have more compact and symmetrical molecular conformations, and exhibit intra-heterogeneous dynamical behavior with respect to the unbranched polymers. In crosslinking rubber by vulcanization, short sulfur branches link polyisoprene chains (or a synthetic variant) into a multiply branched thermosetting elastomer. Rubber can also be so completely vulcanized that it becomes a rigid solid, so hard it can be used as the bit in a smoking pipe. Polycarbonate chains can be crosslinked to form the hardest, most impact-resistant thermosetting plastic, used in safety glasses.Branching may result from the formation of carbon-carbon or various other types of covalent bonds. Branching by ester and amide bonds is typically by a condensation reaction, producing one molecule of water (or HCl) for each bond formed. Polymers which are branched but not crosslinked are generally thermoplastic. Branching sometimes occurs spontaneously during synthesis of polymers; e.g., by free-radical polymerization of ethylene to form polyethylene. In fact, preventing branching to produce linear polyethylene requires special methods. Because of the way polyamides are formed, nylon would seem to be limited to unbranched, straight chains. But "star" branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino groups. Branching also occurs naturally during enzymatically-catalyzed polymerization of glucose to form polysaccharides such as glycogen (animals), and amylopectin, a form of starch (plants). The unbranched form of starch is called amylose. The ultimate in branching is a completely crosslinked network such as found in Bakelite, a phenol-formaldehyde thermoset resin.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
CROSS LINKING/C3R/CXL (INTRODUCTION) [HD]
 
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Corneal Collagen Cross-linking (CXL) is a surgical procedure to slow-down or to halt the progression and to reverse the keratoconus to some extent in rare cases due to flattening of cornea. Thus cross linking has emerged as a wonderful technique to help keratoconus patients all around the globe. Now it is possible to reduce the number of corneal transplants in most of the cases. If your keratoconus is progressive in nature then you should not postpone the decision to have C3R. Cross linking surgery procedure involves Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) and UltraViolet-A (UV-A, 365 nm) light. This helps in strengthening of the corneal structure with the formation of new bonds in collagen strands. It has been found that C3R can strengthen the corneal structure by up to 300% and that is good enough!!!
Views: 150 Keratoconushub
What Is Olaplex?
 
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How olaplex repairs damaged hair cosmopolitan. Olaplex hair treatment what is it and how does work? Elle uk. Olaplex hair treatment work? Lab muffin beauty science. In short olaplex links broken bonds in the hair 1 jul 2015 afraid of going blonde for fear ruing your hair? Worry no longer, thanks to this game changing product. Googleusercontent search. Olaplex links broken bonds in the hair before, during and after chemical services 13 apr 2015 olaplex is a repair treatment that s getting heaps of buzz community, especially with people who have damaged from excessive bleach. What is the olaplex hair treatment and why do you need to try it? . Olaplex hair treatment how it works and to use marie clairedamaged healthy i tried olaplex, this is what happened naturally curly. Olaplex claims to reconnect broken disulfide sulfur bonds in the hair The treatment is labelled a bond multiplier 5 jun 2017 olaplex salon works repair damaged. This dream team invented a single ingredient chemistry, that is free of silicones and oils. Olaplex treatment is an awesome way of cross linking the disulphide bonds in your hair that have broken down due to straightening, bleaching, colouring etc. Eric pressly and craig hawker, two of the world's leading chemists. The truth about olaplex colorists get real industry's top what is it and does do nevo hair design. Product, promises to repair the hair shaft, improving condition of 6 sep 2015 refinery29 reviews new olaplex no. Olaplex hair treatment; What is it and how to use. All you need to know about olaplex treatmentorder hereamazon hair perfector no 3 repairing treatment. We break down what it is, where to get and more damaged hair advice from 23 jan 2015. How does olaplex hair treatment work? Lab muffin beauty science. What it is, instead, is system that permanently rebuilds the damaged disulphide bonds in your hair are broken during chemical process olaplex was developed by dr. Olaplex nr 1 is mixed with order the revolution in hair colouringfind out more about olaplex and buy australia free of silicone, sulfates, phthalates, dea, aldehydes, never tested on animals. Can olaplex give you back the hair had in your 20s? . We found out what is olaplex and. Glamour uk glamourmagazine. Daily mail olaplex at home refinery29. Olaplex reconnects broken disulfide sulfur bonds in the hair olaplex perfector no 3 repairing treatment. Ounce Olaplex traveling stylist kit for all hair types Fanola no yellow shampoo, 350 ml 19 jan 2017 how does olaplex work, you ask? Hair color experts break down this miracle working product so, what is olaplex? It's a revolutionary new that top stylists and colorists are going nuts. Uk olaplex hair treatment benefits and how to use url? Q webcache. 3, a take home post color treatment that promises to repair and heal damaged strands 4 apr 2017 'olaplex is like nothing else out there, it's a whole new molecule that works inside the hair strengthening and repairing the structure that has 8 dec 2015 olaplex
Views: 79 Stores
Protect Your Vehicle With Ceramic Coating
 
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Finished Image Detailing Ceramic Coating Protect Your Vehicle’s Paint with Ceramic Coating - https://goo.gl/RXh2wB Website - https://goo.gl/gPPK8U Facebook - https://goo.gl/A5QJXj Instagram - https://goo.gl/ZE3CRK LinkedIn - https://goo.gl/15RiVk Nano Ceramic Coating forms a permanent bond with the surface and will not wash off or break down. Nano Ceramic Coating can only be removed by abrasion. It is a highly durable protective coating that protects your paintwork from damaging contaminants. Nano Ceramic Coating can be applied in multiple layers which means the thickness of the coating can be increased with additional layers allowing a thicker/harder coating with improved scratch resistance. Nano Ceramic Coating works on the atomic level as opposed to Silicon-based products that work on the molecular level. The result is a surface that: * Entirely repels water & oil making it hydrophobic * Nearly self-cleaning * Due to the anti-static properties imparted by the molecular 3D grid structure and the application procedures that produce the proper surface coating structure. * Forms a protective, glossy layers of ceramic-like / Glass-like matrices on the vehicle‘s finish with very strong cross-linked covalent bonds. * However, the outstanding characteristic of Nano Ceramic Coating for hard painted surfaces lies in the fact that it is Extremely hard! But, you ask, how hard is “extremely hard”? * An internationally recognized European-based testing laboratory tested the product and awarded to it a formal certification for hardness rated at 9H on the hardness scale. * To understand and appreciate what that means, they rate steel at a hardness of 13H. * Comparatively speaking, this means Ceramic Coating is 69.2% as hard as steel! But, at the same time, it is crystal clear and flexible. Think of a thin sheet of stainless steel that was flexible, crystal clear and could be bonded to your car from a bottle! Amazing Right?
(L-2) Polymers || Classification of Polymers || 12th Organic || by Arvind Arora
 
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Chemistry By Arvind Arora My New CHANNEL (A square Vlogs)LINK Click And Subscribe Now https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6ERimtc5zFrn7x6Bk3HaHA email id:- [email protected] MY INSTAGRAM PROFILE :-https://www.instagram.com/arora28avi/ My FACEBOOK GROUP Link is: https://www.facebook.com/groups/180307449341873/ My FACEBOOK page Link is: https://www.facebook.com/Made-Ejee-Chemistry-1920785268140341/
Nanohide Nh S10 Stone
 
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NANOHIDE® Nh-S10 permanently enhances, restores and protects brick pavers, travertine, clay roof tiles, natural and artificial exterior stone. Nh-S10 will not fade, peel or power-wash away. It is a one component polyurethane hybrid coating that is "cross-linked “and permanently, chemically bonds to porous stone.
Views: 149 NANOHIDE TOUGH
Perm (hairstyle)
 
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A permanent wave, commonly called a perm or "permanent", involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. The hair is washed and wrapped on a former and waving lotion or 'reagent' is applied. This solution reacts chemically softening the inner structure of the hair by breaking some of the cross links within and between the protein chains of the hair. The hair swells, stretches and softens, then moulds around the shape of the former. In addition, the process is often used for the chemical hair straightening, or relaxing. This process makes use of the same chemical reactions as that of the permanent wave, but the hair is combed straight rather than wrapped around formers. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 214 Audiopedia
Lilt Home Permanent Commercial #2 "Betty's Bringing Her Beauty Shop Home" ~ (1960) Procter & Gamble
 
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Short clip advertising Lilt home permanent kit. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perm_(hairstyle) A permanent wave, commonly called a perm or "permanent", involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. The hair is washed and wrapped on a form and waving lotion or 'reagent' is applied. This solution reacts chemically softening the inner structure of the hair by breaking some of the cross links within and between the protein chains of the hair. The hair swells, stretches and softens, then molds around the shape of the form. In addition, the process is often used for the chemical hair straightening, or relaxing (a process first developed by Renaud Whittington). This process makes use of the same chemical reactions as that of the permanent wave, but the hair is combed straight rather than wrapped around forms.
Views: 34 Old Movies Reborn
Lilt Home Permanent TV Commercial No. 1 ~ (1960) Procter & Gamble
 
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Advertising Lilt home permanent kit,no one can help marge with her hair so she uses the kit herself and is pleased with the results. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perm_(hairstyle) A permanent wave, commonly called a perm or "permanent", involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. The hair is washed and wrapped on a form and waving lotion or 'reagent' is applied. This solution reacts chemically softening the inner structure of the hair by breaking some of the cross links within and between the protein chains of the hair. The hair swells, stretches and softens, then molds around the shape of the form. In addition, the process is often used for the chemical hair straightening, or relaxing (a process first developed by Renaud Whittington). This process makes use of the same chemical reactions as that of the permanent wave, but the hair is combed straight rather than wrapped around forms.
Views: 23 Old Movies Reborn
Transglutaminase in blood coagulation: Crosslinking of fibrin by Ph.D. Laszlo Lorand
 
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Ph.D. Laszlo Lorand https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laszlo_Lorand http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/faculty-profiles/az/profile.html?xid=15545 http://www.nasonline.org/member-directory/members/15535.html FXIIIa --------- NIKOLAJSEN 2014 http://www.jbc.org/content/289/10/652... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2... The coagulation cascade has evolved as an essential defense mechanism for maintaining hemostasis during tissue or blood vessel injury. Activation of the cascade ultimately results in the formation of an insoluble blood clot. The clot consists mainly of fibrin fibers, platelets, and red blood cells. The fibers are formed when activated thrombin cleaves fibrinogen into fibrin monomers, which then assemble into fibrin fibers. To obtain fibers that are capable of resisting mechanical shear and proteolytic degradation, concurrent cleavage of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII)3 by thrombin is needed. Once cleaved and activated, FXIIIa is able to stabilize the fibrin fibers and alter the characteristics of the clot. FXIIIa belongs to the family of human transglutaminases (TG) (EC 2.3.2.13). This group of enzymes is defined by their common ability to catalyze thiol- and Ca2+-dependent transamidation reactions. The TG-catalyzed reaction between specific Gln and Lys residues within substrate proteins results in the formation of covalent cross-links, defined as ϵ-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds. The major physiological function of FXIIIa is to stabilize the fibrin clot during coagulation. FXIIIa cross-links α- and γ-chains of fibrin monomers within fibrin fibers once they have been formed. The intermolecular cross-linking of the fibrin monomers converts loose fibrin fibers into a stable fiber network that is able to withstand mechanical stress and resist clot rupture. FXIIIa deficiency, which causes severe bleeding diathesis, demonstrates the essential role of FXIIIa in coagulation. Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a transglutaminase with a well defined role in the final stages of blood coagulation. Active FXIII (FXIIIa) catalyzes the formation of ϵ-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds between specific Gln and Lys residues. The primary physiological outcome of this catalytic activity is stabilization of the fibrin clot during coagulation. The stabilization is achieved through the introduction of cross-links between fibrin monomers and through cross-linking of proteins with anti-fibrinolytic activity to fibrin. Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use
Views: 123 FOTGCREN
Transglutaminase crosslinking of the same protein-based foods 2 (fillets)
 
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http://webs.ono.com/fotgcren/index.htm Transglutaminase crosslinking of the same protein-based foods 2 (fillets) TGases have been identified in many different of taxonomic groups, including microorganisms, plants, invertebrates, and mammals (Rachel 2013). In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates (Rachel 2013). Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of isopeptide bonds between proteins (Kieliszek 2014) In commercial food processing, transglutaminase is used to bond proteins together (Wikipedia 2015) Transglutaminase is produced by Streptoverticillium mobaraense fermentation in commercial quantities or extracted from animal blood (Wikipedia 2015) The extremely high costs of manufacturing transglutaminase from animal origin have prompted scientists to search for new sources of this enzyme (Kieliszek 2014) Interdisciplinary efforts have been aimed at producing enzymes synthesised by microorganisms which may have a wider scope of use (Kieliszek 2014) In 1989, microbial transglutaminase was isolated from Streptoverticillium sp. Its characterisation indicated that this isoform could be extremely useful as a biotechnological tool in the food industry (Kieliszek 2014) Microbial transglutaminase is an important enzyme in food processing for improving protein properties by catalyzing the cross-linking of proteins (Zhang 2010). Transglutaminase is also widely used in the meat industry, mainly in the manufacture of restructured meat (Kuraishi et al. 1997). Microbial transglutaminase is commonly employed as a tool in the food industry to catalyze the cross-linking of meat, soy, and wheat proteins to improve and modify their texture and tensile properties (Rcahel 2013). It is notable that gluten pretreated with microbial transglutaminase and an amine donor prior to TG2 treatment induces less IFN-γ production by celiac patient biopsy-derived intestinal T cells relative to gluten receiving no pretreatment. This suggests that the specificities of these enzymes (Human Tissue transglutaminase and microbial transglutaminase) do indeed overlap to some extent (Bethune 2008). Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.
Views: 496 FOTGCREN
Transglutaminase in blood coagulation: Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) Crosslinking of fibrin by Kevin Ahern 2
 
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Kevin Ahern ------------------ http://biochem.science.oregonstate.edu/content/kevin-ahern https://www.youtube.com/user/oharow http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/bb451/ http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/bb450/ https://www.linkedin.com/in/kevin-ahern-b6b94b64 FXIIIa --------- DICKNEITE 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25652913 http://zlmsg.ch/uploads/media/th_2015-113-4_23966.pdf Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII), a plasma transglutaminase, is best known as the final enzyme in the coagulation cascade, where it is responsible for cross-linking of fibrin. Factor XIII (FXIII) is the final enzyme in the coagulation cascade and it plays a key role in maintaining the functional integrity of fibrin clots. This coagulation factor circulates in plasma as a protransglutaminase. FXIII is activated by thrombin (factor IIa) to form a transglutaminase that catalyses covalent bond formation between the γ-carboxyamine group of a glutamine residue and the ε-amino group of a lysine residue. During clot formation, stability is achieved through covalent cross-linking of fibrin γ- and α-chains and covalent binding of antifibrinolytic proteins to fibrin. The critical function of FXIII in haemostasis is reflected in the broad spectrum of bleeding complications that is observed in patients with congenital FXIII deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive trait. While the ‘classic’ substrates for FXIII are the non-cross-linked fibrin polymers and, potentially, fibrinogen, other biologically important molecules have been shown to be substrates as well. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that FXIII targets a wide range of additional substrates that have important roles in health and disease. These include antifibrinolytic proteins, with cross-linking of α2-antiplasmin to fibrin, and potentially fibrinogen, being the principal mechanism(s) whereby plasmin-mediated clot degradation is minimised. FXIII also acts on endothelial cell VEGFR-2 and αvβ3 integrin, which ultimately leads to downregulation of the antiangiogenic protein thrombospondin-1, promoting angiogenesis and neovascularisation. Under infectious disease conditions, FXIII cross-links bacterial surface proteins to fibrinogen, resulting in immobilisation and killing, while during wound healing, FXIII induces cross-linking of the provisional matrix. Antifibrinolytic proteins such as α2-antiplasmin, thrombinactivatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and α2-macroglobulin are also incorporated into the clot, with cross-linking of α2-antiplasmin to fibrin being the principal mechanism whereby plasminmediated degradation of the fibrin clot is minimised. Furthermore, macromolecular components of plasma and the extracellular matrix, e. g. fibronectin and vitronectin are also crosslinked to fibrin, influencing the behaviour of fibroblasts, neutrophils and leukocytes through integrin signalling properties.
Views: 130 FOTGCREN
Beta amyloid and Tau proteins (transglutaminase substrates) Osmosis & Neuroscientifically Challenged
 
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GROSSO 2012: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212614 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is another disease in which Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) is implicated ( Lesort, et al., 2000). It is marked by neuronal loss throughout the brain including the hippocampus, which manifests as memory deficits and cognitive impairment ( Purves, 2004). Aβ amyloid-containing extracellular Alzheimer plaques and tau-containing intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles constitute characteristic microscopic features of AD. TRANSGLUTAMINASE: Evidence from in vitro and cell culture studies indicate that TG2 cross-links both AD-related proteins, tau and Aβ amyloid ( Lesort, et al., 2000). Postmortem brain analyses of AD patients have provided evidence for increased expression and activity of TG2 compared to age-matched controls. Evidence for increased TG2 activity in AD is detected by the presence of increased SDS-insoluble GGEL bonds in AD brains ( Kim,et al., 1999). TAU Early biochemical and kinetic studies of tau demonstrated that it is a substrate of TG2, and that TG2 cross-linking of tau makes it more recognizable to an antibody that detects a pathologic conformation of this peptide ( Lesort, et al., 2000). A subsequent study showed that incubation of tau with TG2 in vitro causes the formation of filaments in a calcium-dependent manner ( Appelt & Balin, 1997). Notably, the co-localization of TG2 with tau aggregates in AD brains is consistent with tau being a substrate of TG2 ( Appelt, et al., 1996 ). These data demonstrate a correlation between the presence of TG2 and the pathology of AD. BETA-AMYLOID Aβ peptide of amyloid plaques can also be cross-linked by TG2 (Ikura et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 1998c; Moore et al., 2009) forming trimers, tetramers, and hexamers of synthetic, partial-length Aβ in in vitro studies (Zhang et al., 1998c). Both lysine residues found in full length Aβ peptide are susceptible to TG2-mediated cross-linking and are involved in TG-catalyzed polymerization ( Rasmussen et al.,1994). This cross-linking of Aβ by TG2 can be inhibited by TG2 inhibitors monodansylcadaverine and spermine ( Zhang et al., 1997). TG2 can also cross-link amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the presence of calcium forming dimers and higher order multimers (Ho et al.,1994).
Views: 3337 FOTGCREN
Branching (polymer chemistry) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branching_(polymer_chemistry) 00:02:05 1 Special types of branched polymer 00:03:25 2 Branching in radical polymerization 00:05:37 3 Branching index Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9822041450093175 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In polymer chemistry, branching occurs by the replacement of a substituent, e.g., a hydrogen atom, on a monomer subunit, by another covalently bonded chain of that polymer; or, in the case of a graft copolymer, by a chain of another type. Branched polymers have more compact and symmetrical molecular conformations, and exhibit intra-heterogeneous dynamical behavior with respect to the unbranched polymers. In crosslinking rubber by vulcanization, short sulfur branches link polyisoprene chains (or a synthetic variant) into a multiply branched thermosetting elastomer. Rubber can also be so completely vulcanized that it becomes a rigid solid, so hard it can be used as the bit in a smoking pipe. Polycarbonate chains can be crosslinked to form the hardest, most impact-resistant thermosetting plastic, used in safety glasses.Branching may result from the formation of carbon-carbon or various other types of covalent bonds. Branching by ester and amide bonds is typically by a condensation reaction, producing one molecule of water (or HCl) for each bond formed. Polymers which are branched but not crosslinked are generally thermoplastic. Branching sometimes occurs spontaneously during synthesis of polymers; e.g., by free-radical polymerization of ethylene to form polyethylene. In fact, preventing branching to produce linear polyethylene requires special methods. Because of the way polyamides are formed, nylon would seem to be limited to unbranched, straight chains. But "star" branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino groups. Branching also occurs naturally during enzymatically-catalyzed polymerization of glucose to form polysaccharides such as glycogen (animals), and amylopectin, a form of starch (plants). The unbranched form of starch is called amylose. The ultimate in branching is a completely crosslinked network such as found in Bakelite, a phenol-formaldehyde thermoset resin.
Views: 15 wikipedia tts